Strategic Analysis Caucasus Brief

Review of June 2024

Tomáš Baranec 


Vineyards, Aragatsotn province, Armenia. Photo: Elena Diego/

Protests in Armenia turn increasingly violent

Violent clashes between protesters and police broke out on June 12 after Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan announced the early conclusion of a peace deal with Baku. Amnesty International criticised the Armenian police for using excessive force. On June 12, the Prime Minister and his cabinet participated in heated debates in Parliament as supporters of the anti-government Tavush for the Motherland Movement attempted to storm the building.

Protesters outside the Parliament reportedly tried to tear through police barricades, with footage showing protesters throwing rocks and bottles at police stationed around the building. The police then used stun grenades to disperse the crowds.

As OC Media reported, footage also surfaced of a man picking up a stun grenade which exploded in his hand. The man’s hand reportedly had to be amputated. Journalists were also reported to have been hit by stun grenades. Armenia’s Health Ministry announced that as of June 13 morning, 101 people, including 18 police officers, had sought medical assistance following the protest. Most were since discharged from the hospital.

The violence followed Pasninyan’s statement that a peace deal with Azerbaijan is close to being finalised. The PM defended the police’s actions, insisting they acted “strictly within the framework of the law.” Reacting to reports of violent clashes between protesters and police in Yerevan, Natalia Nozadze, Amnesty International’s South Caucasus researcher, expressed deep concern over the level of violence during the latest street rally.

Nozadze described the violence as “deeply disturbing” and highlighted the need for authorities to respect the rights of protesters and exercise restraint​. “We call on the Armenian authorities to immediately and impartially investigate what happened, including allegations that the police may have used unnecessary or excessive force. The authorities’ response to protests, even if they escalate into violence, must strictly comply with international law and human rights standards. Law enforcement officials should avoid the use of force. Where this is not possible, force should be used only when it is absolutely necessary and proportionate to achieving a legitimate law enforcement objective, and to the minimum extent necessary,” Amnesty International said in a statement.

Armenian human rights activist Ruben Melikyan later reported on June 15 that Pashinyan’s government had ordered widespread arrests. According to Melikyan’s Facebook post, a wave of mass arrests occurred in various locations, including Martuni, Gavar, Vanadzor, Ujan, and Yerevan.

France continues arms sales to Armenia reported that on June 18, French Defense Minister Sebastien Lecornu announced the sale of 36 CAESAR self-propelled howitzers to Armenia. Lecornu met with Armenian Defence Minister Suren Papikyan in France on June 17. During the meeting several new agreements were reached, including one signed between the Armenian Defence Ministry and French arms manufacturer KNDS France.

The CAESAR is a long-range self-propelled howitzer that has received praise for its performance against Russian forces in Ukraine. Armenian security analyst Tigran Grigoryan called the acquisition “big’” adding that France was “the only Western actor that really understands what’s needed for stability in the South Caucasus”.

Military analyst Eduard Arakelyan told OC Media that this deal showed that France intended to supply Armenia with more lethal military equipment. Arakelyan also noted that the acquisition would be a further step away from Armenia’s traditional reliance on Soviet-era and Russian equipment towards Western standards.

Moreover, on June 19, Armenia’s Defense Minister Suren Papikyan met with General Fabien Mandon, who serves as Military Adviser and Chief of the Military Staff to the President of France. According to information provided by Armenia’s Ministry of Defense, they discussed the current collaboration between Armenia and France in defence matters and future potential programs.

Meanwhile, the French media outlet Le Point has published an open letter from several prominent French personalities to French President Emmanuel Macron. They call on him to send French troops to Armenia. “We particularly thank you for your initiative to provide military assistance of a defensive nature to this state, to authorise the delivery of certain weapons and to train Armenian soldiers in our best schools. Unfortunately, it is to be feared that these efforts will not be enough to make the Aliyev regime abandon its expansionist and criminal projects,” the letter reads. The authors emphasise that a dangerous situation is emerging for Armenia, bordering on the danger of total annihilation.

The letter was signed by dozens of well-known personalities from various fields, including the Mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, the philosopher Elisabeth Badinter, the former Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Bernard Kouchner, the President of the Île-de-France region Valérie Pécresse, the MEPs François-Xavier Bellamy, Nathalie Loiseau, Jean-Marc Germain, the Mayor of Montpellier Michael Delafosse and others.

The rapprochement of Armenia and France in the military sphere caused stormy reactions, especially in Baku and Moscow. Azerbaijan’s Defence Ministry issued a lengthy statement condemning the deal to acquire French artillery. “The Macron regime, which pursues a policy of militarisation and geopolitical intrigue in the South Caucasus region, is an obstacle to the normalisation of relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan and the achievement of sustainable peace in the region”, they said. “We declare that the responsibility for any new escalation of the situation in the South Caucasus region and the creation of a new hotbed of war will be fully borne by the leadership of Armenia, which pursues a revanchist policy, and the Macron dictatorship.”

Meanwhile, in a press briefing on June 19, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Maria Zakharova criticised the deal to its military ally during the briefing, calling it “one more step” Paris was taking to provoke “another round of armed confrontation in the South Caucasus”.

Zakharova accused Paris of not acting in the interests of Armenia and its people and seeking to use “existing disagreements and contradictions within countries or between countries as a tool to achieve its own opportunistic goals”. “I mean not only the personal interest of the Élysée Palace but also France as a conductor of NATO ideology”.

Armenia recalls ambassador from Belarus amid rising tension with Russia

The foreign ministries of Armenia and Belarus recalled their respective ambassadors, setting off a diplomatic row between Yerevan and one of Russia’s closest allies, reported

“Armenian Ambassador to Belarus Razmik Khumaryan has been called to Yerevan for consultations,” Armenian foreign ministry spokesperson Ani Badalyan wrote in a Facebook post without elaborating. Soon after, Anatoly Glaz, a spokesperson for the Belarus foreign ministry, said that his country’s Ambassador to Armenia, Alexander Konyuk, had been recalled to Minsk “for consultations.”

Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan on June 13 criticised President Aleksander Lukashenko of Belarus, who, during a recent visit to occupied Shushi, boasted about his government’s support to Azerbaijan during the 2020 Artsakh War. Armenian PM, in a strong response, declared in Parliament that neither he nor any other Armenian official will visit Belarus while Lukashenko is in power. Belarus and Armenia are both members of the Russia-led military alliance CSTO, and Azerbaijan is not a member of CSTO.

Armenia recognises Palestine

Armenia announced on June 21 that it was recognising the State of Palestine, the latest country to do so during the war in Gaza. Yerevan stressed it was against “violence towards civilian populations.” “The catastrophic humanitarian situation in Gaza and the ongoing military conflict is one of the primary issues on the international political agenda that requires resolution. The Republic of Armenia categorically rejects the targeting of civilian infrastructures, violence against the civilian population and the hostage-taking and capture of civilians during the armed conflict and joins the demands of the international community for their release without preconditions,” the Foreign Ministry said in a statement.

Shortly after Yerevan announced the recognition, Israel’s foreign ministry said it summoned the Armenian ambassador for a “severe reprimand”. A senior official from the Palestinian Authority, Hussein Al-Sheikh, welcomed the move. “This is a victory for the right, justice, legitimacy and the struggle of our Palestinian people for liberation and independence,” he said on social media. “Thank you, our friend Armenia,” added Al-Sheikh, who is also secretary general of the Palestine Liberation Organisation executive committee.

The Islamist Palestinian movement Hamas, which is at war with Israel in Gaza, also welcomed Yerevan’s decision: “We consider this an additional and important step towards solidifying international recognition of our people’s rights and their aspirations to end the occupation of their land”, the movement said in a statement.

In late May, Spain, Ireland, and Norway officially recognised the State of Palestine, stating they saw the move as a step towards peace in the region. Israeli authorities accused the European trio of “rewarding terrorism”.



Ex-president Serzh Sargsyan acquitted in embezzlement case

Serzh Sargsyan, who served as Armenia’s President from 2008 to 2018, was acquitted on  May 31 of embezzlement charges along with two co-defendants. This brought an end to a yearslong criminal case that government critics decried as politically motivated.

Sargsyan, who was forced to step down following the 2018 revolution, was charged in late 2019 and put on trial in early 2020. He denied the charges while his party, the Republican Party, decried them as politically motivated. Even if found guilty, Sargsyan would not have faced imprisonment because of an expiring statute of limitations.

“It’s not like I am very happy with this ruling, or if there was a different decision, I would have experienced a tragedy. Also, considering the fact that the statute of limitations had expired long ago, for me, it is first of all of moral value”, Sargsyan told reporters after the court session.

As the OC Media reminds, following the 2018 Velvet Revolution, charges were brought against numerous high-ranking officials; among those charged is former president Robert Kocharyan, who was on trial on charges of “overthrowing constitutional order” in a 2008 crackdown that left ten people dead — charges dropped in 2021.

Armenia may hold a referendum on EU membership “in the near future”

Armenia’s leadership wants to join the European Union and will hold a referendum for that purpose “in the near future,” Parliament speaker Alen Simonyan reportedly said on June 24, as cited by

Simonyan stated that, the country’s Parliament discussed holding a referendum on Armenia’s becoming a member of the EU. “I believe that we will have this referendum in the near future, and I am sure that our people will say ‘yes,” added the speaker of the Armenian legislative body.

On June 25, Russia’s Deputy Prime Minister Alexey Overchuk stated that Armenia risks losing tariff-free access to the Russian market and other economic privileges if it pursues European Union membership.

“Of course, speaking about Armenia, it is impossible to ignore the fact that today, the political vector of this country is leaning more and more towards the West,” said Alexey Overchuk, adding, “You also need to understand that the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union are incompatible entities. And the benefits that a country receives from proximity to Russia must be seen as the price we pay for our security and strategic depth. The involvement of some extra-regional players there would, of course, have consequences.”

  • OC Media, „Armenia may hold referendum on EU membership ‘in near future“,


City of Shusha. Photo: Eva Mont/

Azerbaijani economist “kidnapped” and detained in AbzasMedia case

Azerbaijani economist Farid Mehralizade was detained as part of the government’s crackdown on AbzasMedia despite having no ties to the independent news outlet. Mehralizade was expected to testify in the AbzasMedia case on June 2 but was reportedly abducted and detained two days earlier, on May 30. His wife, Nargiz Mukhtarova, said that her husband disappeared in the early morning of May 30 and was escorted to their home by the police around noon that day.

“The police brought him home at noon. They raided our house and took only our mobile phones, even the old ones that were unusable. When the police arrested him, they put a bag over his head”, she told the OC Media.

On June 6, lawyer Javad Javadov told that the Baku Court of Appeal dismissed the Mehralizades’ complaint against his arrest. The defence presented evidence to the court about the illegality of the arrest. “Farid himself also pointed out the lack of grounds for his arrest. He had no cooperation with the publication Abzas Media. Unfortunately, the court did not take all this into account,” the lawyer said. On June 2, the Khatai district court arrested the economist for three months and 20 days.

Six journalists and media workers are under arrest in this case. Criminal cases against two other persons were separated into separate proceedings.

  • FARHADOVA Aytan, OC Media, “Azerbaijani economist ‘kidnapped’ and detained in AbzasMedia case”,

  •, „Court of Appeal does not release Farid Mehralizade”,

Azerbaijan to hold snap parliamentary election on September 1 

Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev dissolved the Parliament on June 28 and set September 1 for elections, moving the vote up from November. The ruling New Azerbaijan Party initiated the move last week, saying that events to be held in the country, including the UN climate conference (COP29), warranted moving the date. The Constitutional Court approved the change on June 27.

Opposition politicians and parties criticised the move as a tool to falsify the elections’ results. Jamil Hasanli, who leads the National Council of Democratic Forces, an opposition bloc that includes the Popular Front Party and others, questioned the move’s legality. Hasanli told OC Media that according to the Azerbaijani Constitution, Parliament only had the right to dissolve itself under particular circumstances, which had not been met. “Only the President has this right to apply to dissolve Parliament, and the Constitutional Court should decide if constitution law was broken or not; they have a responsibility to defend the constitution… COP29 is not a valid reason for dissolving the Parliament; this is a political decision, not a judicial one”, he said.

It is unclear which opposition parties will choose to run. In previous elections, a number of candidates from the largest opposition parties, including the Popular Front Party and Musavat, have been barred from running. Azerbaijan last held parliamentary elections in 2020, with Aliyev’s New Azerbaijan Party winning 70 of 120 seats amidst widespread incidents of voter fraud. The remaining seats went to pro-government independent candidates and small opposition parties.

  •  RFE/RL, “Azerbaijan To Hold Snap Parliamentary Elections On September 1”,
  • FARHADOVA Aytan, OC Media, “Azerbaijan to hold a snap parliamentary election on September 1”,
Azerbaijan and Iran hold military drills amidst apparent détente

The drill, which took place in Azerbaijan’s exclave of Nakhchivan and Poldasht County in the northwestern Iranian province of West Azarbaijan, involved special forces and rapid reaction units from both countries. The exercises, which involved military personnel, combat equipment, aviation vehicles, and unmanned aerial vehicles, were specifically designed to enhance commanders’ decision-making skills, increase their professionalism level, and improve the interoperability of participating units, as stated by the Azerbaijani Defense Ministry.

Commenting on the joint drill, Deputy Commander of the Iranian Army’s Ground Force for Operations Karim Cheshak said the exercise involved one battalion comprising the two countries’ special and rapid reaction forces. He highlighted the importance of the bilateral agreement that facilitated this exercise. “Based on the agreements made between the two countries, a battalion-level exercise was conducted to counter terrorism and ensure the sustainable security of the region, which has been threatened by terrorist groups,” Cheshak stated. The exercise, which lasted one day, showcased both nations’ armed forces’ operational readiness and tactical capabilities.

Iran and Azerbaijan have long maintained strained relations. Iran has objected to Azerbaijan’s ties with Israel, while Azerbaijan has repeatedly accused Iran of supporting Shia extremists in Azerbaijan. Despite their historically strained relations, Iran and Azerbaijan have recently taken steps to ease diplomatic tensions. Last year, they agreed to develop their military partnership, and they have since begun implementing long-awaited projects, such as the construction of a road connecting Azerbaijan with its exclave of Nakhchivan through Iran and the commissioning of the Khudafarin hydropower plant in May.

Shujaat Ahmadzada, an independent Azerbaijani researcher, told the OC Media that the drills the two countries held did not herald a potential “military alliance between Azerbaijan and Iran. To be honest, the two countries’ foreign policies are opposite to each other. For me, it is a tactical act through which Azerbaijan and Iran would like to send a message”, he said, adding that Iranian–Azerbaijani relations were an act of “balance” based on developments in the Middle East.

However, with Israel’s war in Gaza continuing, Ahmadzada argued that Israel might find itself at odds with Azerbaijan’s other partners and allies, such as Turkey and Pakistan, which might, in turn, push Azerbaijan to develop closer ties with Iran.



Borjomi, spa town in Georgia. Photo: Anton Ivanov/

UNM to appoint new party chair

The incumbent leader of the opposition United National Movement (UNM), Levan Khabeishvili, announced at the June 8 briefing that he would step down as party leader and, at the upcoming UNM congress, propose the candidacy of the UNM Parliamentary faction leader, Tina Bokuchava, to replace him.

Khabeishvili cited health reasons and the “strong recommendation” of doctors to avoid intensive work for “2-3 months.” In this context, he referred to his severe beating by police during the April 30 and May 1 protests against the Foreign Agents Law. “Society is aware of the events a month ago,” he said. Khabeishvili plans to convene the UNM congress, which, in addition to the question of a new leader, will decide on his candidacy for the chairmanship of the party’s Political Council, which he says is not a “routine” job but still allows him to participate in political decision-making. According to Khabeishvili, the party’s leadership election will be held in February 2025, as scheduled.

Bokuchava also spoke at the briefing, stating that Georgia’s fate was currently being decided.” Today, it is being decided where our children will live, whether they will live in Russia’s backyard or a European Georgia”, said Bokuchava.

As OC Media reminds, Khabeishvili was elected in January 2023, after party members called for snap internal party elections for the chair post, which Nika Melia had occupied since December 27 2020. Later the same year, hundreds of UNM members left the party in protest against his leadership.

  •, “Tina Bokuchava to Replace Levan Khabeishvili as UNM Chair”,

  • OC Media, “UNM to appoint new party chair”,

Georgia’s Alt Info to run in elections with Alliance of Patriots

The pro-Russian Alt Info party is set to participate in the parliamentary elections with the support of another pro-Russian party, the Alliance of Patriots. Zurab Makharadze, one of the leaders of Alt Info, in his announcement, underscores the strategic alliance between Alt Info and the Patriots Alliance. He highlights the alignment of their visions and the unique opportunity this alliance presents for Alt Info to participate in the elections.

Irma Inashvili, leader of the Alliance of Patriots party, stated that, in reality, the ruling party has been deliberately fighting not so much against the “National Movement” (one of the opposition parties founded by former president Mikheil Saakashvili) but against the conservative wing in politics for many years. “On one hand, there is an alliance of ultraliberals in Georgia – you could call it the “collective Saakashvili” – which includes the “National Movement” and its offshoots. On the other hand, there is the liberal ruling party “Georgian Dream,” which only pretends to be conservative,” said Irma Inashvili.

Another leader of the „Alliance of Patriots,“ David Tarkhan-Mouravi, supports this idea. “It is clear that a war with Russia is not in Georgia’s interest. We cannot win such a war. We should find a common language with Russia and maintain calm, peaceful relations. But the “Georgian Dream” is essentially the same as the “National Movement,” containing people “imported from there.” For 12 years, they have been trying to destroy all conservative forces in the country and take their place,” said Tarkhan-Mouravi.

On April 8, the Public Registry cancelled the Alt-Info party – the Conservative Movement. The registry examined the legality of the party’s registration based on the appeal of the Anti-Corruption Bureau and found that the founding documentation submitted by the leadership of Conservative Movement/Alt Info on December 6, 2021, for the purpose of registration did not meet the requirements established by law. The leaders of Alt Info stated that the government abolished the party in gross violation of the law so that it could not participate in the parliamentary elections. A few days before the cancellation, the Central Election Commission (CEC) registered Conservative Movement/Alt Info as an election entity.

After that, Alt Info decided to participate in the elections through the Georgian Idea party. However, on April 23, based on the anti-corruption bureau’s appeal, the public registry began to investigate compliance with the legislation of the registered data of Georgian Idea. Until the end of this process, the CEC suspended the registration process of Georgian Idea as an electoral entity.

  • Sakartvelos Ambebi, “Alt-Info to Join Elections with Patriots Alliance Help”,

  • OC Media, „Georgia’s Alt Info to run in elections with Alliance of Patriots”,

A fresh wave of attacks on critics of the Georgian government

Altogether, eight opponents of the current Georgian government were assaulted or personally threatened by unknown assailants in June, according to the On June 2, Tsotne Koberidze, a young politician from the opposition party Girchi-More Freedom, was confronted near his apartment in Tbilisi by two unknown assailants wielding electric shock devices. Koberidze resisted, and bystanders shouted at the attackers, who then fled the scene, leaving Koberidze physically unharmed.

On June 6, Nino Kalandia, an activist and representative of the organisations Talgha and Georgian Down Syndrome Association, reported that when she came home to her apartment complex, she was met in the lobby by a man who asked her when she was going to stop what she was doing and then threatened her. Kalandia actively and loudly confronted him, and the man, taken aback, had to leave her alone. Kalandia has also reported receiving threatening phone calls.

The next day, Niko Managadze, an activist, representative of the Student Movement for Freedom and one of the students protesting Prime Minister Irakli Kobakhidze’s lecture at Tbilisi State University, was attacked by several men on the street in broad daylight.

Several men dressed in black gathered around the apartment complex of Zurab (Girchi) Japaridze, leader of the opposition party Girchi-More Freedom, on June 10, allegedly waiting to attack him physically. The politician’s neighbours spotted the suspicious figures. Zurab Japaridze was targeted three times in the last month and once had to fire a warning shot from his gun into the air to scare off the attackers.

On June 11, Zuka Berdzenishvili, an activist and the son of Davit Berdzenishvili, one of the leaders of the opposition Republican party, was brutally assaulted by three people near his home. Recalling the incident, Berdzenishvili says that while he was being beaten, one of the attackers also threatened his life, saying, “I promise I’ll shoot you in the head.”

Another activist, Beqa Papashvili, was beaten on June 13 for calling Georgian Dream MP Beqa Odisharia a “Russian slave” and a “traitor” in a grocery store. According to Papashvili, Odisharia was in the store with his bodyguards, who wouldn’t let Papashvili get close to the MP, and after Papashvili came out of the store, three men surrounded him within minutes and started beating him. Papashvili says that one of the men proudly announced that he was Odisharia’s son.

On June 17, Leri Darjania, a friend of civic activist Datuna Danelia, was attacked and severely beaten by about seven men around 8 a.m. Danelia wrote about this on social media, saying: “At 8 o’clock this morning, my friend and comrade-in-arms Leri Darjania was met by the “Titushkys” of the Georgian Dream and was physically assaulted by about 7 people”. According to him, Darjania was hospitalised with a broken nose and other facial injuries.

 The last attacked was activist Niko Gaprindashvili, who was ambushed by three men who physically assaulted him with batons, leaving him with a concussion and other physical injuries on June 22. He was attacked after announcing the June 30 protest rally against the Georgian Manganese mining company.

  •, “2024 | Chronicle of Repression”,

Washington sanctions “dozens” over Georgia’s foreign agent law

The United States imposed sanctions on June 6 on dozens of Georgian officials in response to the enactment of a law that drew weeks of protests by critics who say it will curb media freedom and jeopardise the country’s chances of joining the European Union, reported AP News.

The move to impose travel bans on the officials, members of the ruling Georgian Dream party, law enforcement officers, lawmakers, private citizens and family members came three days after Georgia’s parliament speaker signed the measure into law following lawmakers’ override of a presidential veto.

State Department spokesman Matthew Miller did not identify those targeted due to visa confidentiality laws but said “a few dozen” people were cited for anti-democratic activity. “These actions risk derailing Georgia’s European future and run counter to the Georgian Constitution and the wishes of its people,” Miller said. He added that the sanctions were the first step and more penalties would be coming unless Georgia changed course.

The ruling party in Georgia derided Washington’s sanctions, with Tbilisi Mayor and Georgian Dream Secretary General Kakha Kaladze stating that “no one is afraid of these sanctions”. “Talking about sanctions just makes me smile”, he said, adding that he did not have a US visa and that he had not been notified of any sanctions being imposed against him. Kaladze earlier this week stated that he was “certain there won’t be any sanctions”.

Georgia Dream’s parliamentary leader, Mamuka Mdinaradze, also appeared to mock the sanctions, stating that sanctioned individuals had a “right to know, at least, whether we are the first legislators in the world to be sanctioned for passing a law”. “Also, the Georgian opposition–[secret services] can rejoice in the light of more specific news, and not with a tenth announcement of general hints”, he said.

On June 15, the RFE/RL informed that The European Union will consider reimposing visa requirements for Georgians, according to a leaked document, in response to a widely criticised “foreign agent” law passed by Parliament despite street protests and international warnings.

In addition to suspending the visa-free EU regime in place since 2017, the document, seen by RFE/RL’s Georgian Service, also calls for considering sanctions on top Georgian government officials, the suspension of financial assistance and other measures.

  • AP News, “US imposes travel bans on Georgian officials over a new law that critics say will curb media freedom”,

  • OC Media, “Washington sanctions ‘dozens’ over Georgia’s foreign agent law”,

  • KOKAIA Anton, RFE/RL, “EU Considering Visa Restrictions, Sanctions In Response To Georgian ‘Foreign Agent’ Law”,

EU: Georgia’s accession ‘de facto’ on halt

European leaders have stated that Georgia’s EU accession is on hold in their most explicit statement yet regarding the consequences of Georgia’s adoption of the foreign agent law and a wave of political violence targetting government critics, writes OC Media. The statement came from the European Council, an EU body composed of the heads of member states which is ultimately responsible for deciding key EU policy, including the accession of new members. The council said Georgia’s ‘current course of action’ had “de facto led to a halt” of its EU accession process.

The conclusions reached by European leaders following a 27–28 June leaders summit in Brussels highlighted the recently adopted Georgian Law on Transparency of Foreign Influence as a “backsliding on the steps set out in the Commission’s recommendation for candidate status”.

The European Council pledges to continue to monitor the situation “closely” in the run-up to the parliamentary elections, calls on the Georgian authorities to ensure that the elections are free and fair, and encourages “substantial” long-term and short-term election observation by partners.

In addition, the European Council reaffirmed its “unwavering support” for Georgia’s territorial integrity. “It reiterates its steadfast solidarity with the Georgia people and its readiness to continue supporting Georgians on their path towards a European future,” the European Council said.


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